When you georeference your raster dataset, you define its location using dataset that you want to align with your projected data in ArcMap. The general steps for georeferencing a raster dataset are: Add the raster dataset that aligns with the projected data. – Add control points that link known raster. This tutorial will explain how to georeference a raster image in ArcGIS so it can then be used as an overlay or for digitizing purposes. In this example, a historic.

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In ArcMap, add a reference georeferencw to your map that would be helpful in matching points from the image e. You can see how six parameters define how a raster’s rows and columns transform into map coordinates.

ArcGIS Desktop Help – Georeferencing a raster dataset

Check this box to show the residuals and RMS error in the link table. Opens arcmmap Symbol Selector window to allow you to choose any line symbol as your residual line. A minimum of four links are required to perform a projective transformation.

If you would like arcmmap provide more details, please log in and add a comment below. A map coordinate system is defined using georefrrence map projection-a method by which the curved surface of the earth is portrayed on a flat surface. The connection between one control point on the raster dataset the from point and the corresponding control point on the aligned target data the to point is a control point pair.


If you want to zoom in further, you can click this tool multiple times.

Georeferencing toolbar tools

Adaptavist Theme Builder 4. This displays the raster dataset in the same area as the reference layer. Typically, having at least one link near each corner of the raster dataset and a few throughout the interior produces the best results.

You have the choice of using several types of transformations, such as polynomial, spline, adjust, projective, or similarity, to determine the correct map coordinate location for each cell in the raster. If, however, the raster dataset must be bent or curved, use a second- or third-order transformation. Questions or issues with the site? Spline transforms the source control points exactly to target control points; the pixels that are a distance from the control points are not guaranteed to be accurate.

First the transformation is used to find a point in the forward direction. Zoom in by clicking once or dragging a box in the Image Viewer window. You can manually shift the source layer, or you can type an x,y value in the measurement text box. The error is the difference between where the from point ended up as opposed to the actual location that was specified.

Display both the main ArcMap window and the Image Viewer window, side by side.

Thank you for your feedback. This is useful when Auto Adjust is disabled.

For example, this process would be helpful in the case of a user finding an aerial photograph in their map. Shifts the source layer. It is based on a spline function, a piecewise polynomial that maintains continuity and smoothness between adjacent polynomials.


The inverse residual shows you the error in the pixels.

Georeferencing toolbar tools—Help | ArcGIS for Desktop

Spline requires a minimum of 10 control points. The navigational buttons will all be disabled on the Image Viewer window. The georeferencing tools on the Georeference tab allows you to georeference any raster heoreference.

Updates the display with each link that is created. However, adding more links will not necessarily yield a better registration. The goal of the least-squares fitting algorithm is to derive a general formula that can be applied to all points, usually at the expense of slight movement georeerence the to positions of the control points.

This displays the raster dataset in the same area as the target layers. When the error is particularly large, you can remove and add control points to adjust the error.

How To: Georeference an image to align with other data

Deletes the selected link. Zoom to the full extent of the ungeoreferenced raster in the Image Viewer window. Any more than three control points introduces errors, or residuals, gepreference are distributed throughout all the control points.

There are several tool that you can use to evaluate your links: The first-order polynomial transformation is commonly used to georeference an image.