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The bulk of Kituba words come from Kikongo. A national language is also one that is used for public and mass communication. It is the only irregular verb in Kituba. The constitution of the Democratic Republic of Congo lists Kikongo as one dictionnaiee the national languages. The status of Kituba in Angola is not known.
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Dictionnaire orthographique kikongo :: Versions :: Add-ons for Firefox
This article includes a list of referencesbut its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. The conjugation of the verb kusala to do is presented in the table below. In practice the term national language means that dictioonnaire is a language of regional administration and elementary education.
The long forms are used in formal written communication whereas the short forms have developed for divtionnaire communication. There are several theories on how Kituba came into being. Kituba has five vowel phonemes: Editions LECO, p.
It is not entirely accurate to call Kituba a creole language as it lacks the distinction between superstrate and substrate influence that is typical of creole development. The object pronouns are used in place of subject ddictionnaire when the subject is being emphasized.
The majority of Kituba speakers live in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Vowels are never reduced, regardless of stress. First Kituba developed downriver Congoan area which is inhabited by the Bakongo. Most verb forms have long and short versions. The vowels are pronounced as follows:.
The suffix indicating voice is adding after the verb root and before the suffix indicating tense. Kituba has kept by and large the noun classes of ethnic Kikongo with some modifications. In addition, many words have been borrowed from FrenchPortugueseand English.
Kituba has subject and object pronouns. There are also other historical names such as KibulamatadiKikwangoIkeleve literally: Views Read Edit View history. Languages of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. All other verbs are conjugated with the help of auxiliary verbs. Kituba is a widely used lingua franca in Central Africa. This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Languages of the Republic of the Congo. Kituba is the largest language of the Republic of Congo.
The name Kituba is used in the constitution of the Republic of Congo. One theory claims that it had already evolved at the time of the Kongo Kingdom as a simplified interdialectal trade language, which the European colonists subsequently took into use for regional administration.
Sadisa “to help”, Sadisana “help one another”, Sadisanaka “helped one another past . Language articles citing Ethnologue 18 Articles lacking in-text citations from August All articles lacking in-text citations Language articles with old Ethnologue 18 speaker data Wikipedia articles needing clarification from July Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers.
The latter means simply “speech”. Without proper rendering supportyou may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Jikongo characters.
It is not widely available. This page was last edited on 28 Decemberat Kitubabecause a translation of the constitution itself is written in Kituba but no translation exists in Kikongo.
Dictionnaire français-kikongo ya leta / Hermann Hochegger. – Version details – Trove
In the Republic of Congo it is called Munukutuba or Kituba. For a guide to IPA symbols, see Help: